Academic ethics are the necessary fundamental principle of research and the reputation. To promote academic integrity and publish high-quality research works, Agricultural Development (AD)issues the following Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement about the expected ethical behavior for all parties related to AD publication, including the author, the peer reviewer, and the AD editor.
Publication and authorship
- All the published papers should list the references and financial support according to AD style.
- Forbidden plagiarism and fraudulent date.
- Forbidden to publish the same research in more than one journal
- Forbidden to publish the same research in different languages
- Original papers should report the work performed and the experiment data accurately, discuss its significance objectively, give experiment details enough to reproduce the research or experiment by others, and cite and list the references exactly according to the AD requirement and AD reference style.
- Originality and plagiarism: Only entirely original papers can be submitted to AD. All the work or words of others should be cited or quoted appropriately. Plagiarism and fraudulent date papers will not be considered for publication by AD.
- Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication: Papers should not be published in more than one journal. Submitting the same research in different languages and the under-review manuscripts to different journals are also unethical behavior, which are unacceptable by AD.
- Sign the AD Copyright form and statement that all data in article are real and authentic.
- Authorship of the paper: All authors should have significantly contributed to the research.
- Participate in the peer review process
- Ethics of experimentation: Approval from the relevant body is required for the studies
- Disclosure and conflicts of Interest: All the financial support for the research should be disclosed.
- All authors are obliged to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.
- Acknowledgement of sources
- Judgments should be objective.
- Reviewers’ views should be expressed clearly with supporting arguments.
- Promptness is necessary. If the selected reviewer feels inadequate to review the paper or cannot promptly review the paper, the reviewer should inform the editor and drop out of the peer review process of the paper.
- Reviewers should have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors, and/or the research funders.
- Reviewers should point out relevant published work which is not yet cited.
- Reviewed articles should be treated confidentially.
- Publication decisions: Editors have complete responsibility and authority to reject/accept an article. But this decision should only be based on the paper’s relevance to the journal’s scope and its academic quality, including the reviewers’ judgments, the research’s innovation, the experiments validity, etc. And only accept a paper when reasonably certain.
- Confidentiality: Editors and the editorial staff should guarantee the confidentiality of the submitted papers which should be only disclosed to the authors, the reviewers, the potential reviewers, the adviser from the AD Editorial Committee, and the publisher if necessary before publication. And the submitted papers should not be used for the editors’ and the editorial staff’s own research without the authors’ written authorization.
- Editors should have no conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject/accept.
- Adhere to the double-blind review in the peer review process.
- Preserve anonymity of reviewers.
- When errors are found, promote the publication of correction or retraction.
Publishing ethics issues
- No plagiarism and no fraudulent data.
- Plagiarism and fraudulent data are forbidden. When a case of plagiarism and fraudulent data is exposed after the paper’s publication in AD, a preliminary investigation will be conducted by AD. AD will also inform the author. The author could state the situation through AD official e-mail: email@example.com. If the plagiarism is confirmed, AD will contact the author’s institute and funding agencies. And AD will mark the plagiarism paper obviously on the PDF of this paper or formally retract the paper.
- Monitoring/safeguarding publishing ethics by the editorial board.
- Crosscheck and double-blind peer review should be conducted for each paper to avoid academic misconduct. And all the files related to each paper should be kept properly.
Guidelines for retracting articles.
- Retracting article will be considered if there is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error), or if the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication), or if the paper constitutes plagiarism, or if the paper reports unethical research.
- The main purpose of retractions is to correct the literature and ensure its integrity rather than to punish authors who misbehave.
- The retracted paper will not be removed from the AD online issues. But notices of retraction will be promptly published and linked to the retracted article, accurately stating the information of the retracted article, the reason(s) for retraction, and who retracts the article, which will be freely available to all readers.
- Articles may be retracted by their author(s) or by AD. In some cases, retractions are issued jointly. And AD has the final decision about retracting articles. AD will retract publications even if all or some of the authors refuse to retract the publication themselves if the unethical behavior is confirmed.
Maintain the integrity of the academic record.
- All the authors will make a commitment of the integrity of the academic record, including the integrity of the data and figures in the paper, when they sign the AD Copyright Form. And the crosscheck and peer review will help the editors to verify the originality and integrity of the submitted paper.
- All the business needs should be precluded from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.
- Dealing with the fundamental errors.
- When an author discovers fundamental errors in the published works, it is the author’s obligation to notify the editor promptly by e-mail. The editors and the editorial stuff should always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.